Skin Care Terminology and Facts Dictionary - S

salicylic acid:beta hydroxy acid (BHA) - there is only one BHA - namely Salicylic Acid - derived from Willow bark, belongs to the aspirin family. Is lipid (fat) soluble, has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Main uses are 1)sebum (skin oil) production control; 2) anti-inflammatory action; 3) anti-bacterial action; 4) removal of deep skin congestion; 5) skin exfoliation. Has a larger molecular structure and longer working action than Glycolic Acid - thus behaves differently than, yet complimentary with Glycolic Acid.
scab:formed when the skin has been damaged, part of the skin's repair process. Can be formed from dried skin fluids, blood or pus. Also known as a crust.
scale:areas of skin characterized by flaky dry patchs, result of accumulated dead epidermal cells. Occur with psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and other skin disorders.
scar:region where normal skin has been replaced with fibrous (scar-forming) tissue. Scars form due to trama to the skin resulting in damage to the dermis.
silicone:derived from silica (refined sand). Has water repelling qualities, can adhere to skin. Has emollient qualities, making the skin feel silky. Found especially in oil-free skin care products.
skin:skin is the largest organ of the body. For the average person it covers 21 square feet, has more than 300 million cells, contains over 11 miles of blood vessels and weighs about 9 pounds.
sodium ascorbyl phosphate:stable form of water-soluble of Vitamin C - used as: 1) uneven skin tone brightener and 2) powerful antioxidant that scavenges and binds to free radicals of oxygen and neutralizes them, so they do not damage the skin cell walls and internal structures. Helps fight againts internal skin danage and premature aging.
sodium hyaluronate:INCI name of Hyaluronic Acid - a super humectant capable of retaining up to 1000x its weight in moisture (water). Used as a hydrating and moisturizing agent. Also know as a cyclic acid. Found in numerous Nancy K Brown products, see Hyaluronic Acid for details.
squalane:stable form of squalene. Natural component of human skin. At birth almost 12% of top layer of skin is made up of this, by mid to late 20th body's production decreases rapidly. Noted for: 1) antioxidant properties, 2) anti-inflammatory properties, 3) stimulating blood circulation, 4) promotion of natural collagen production.
SPF:stands for Sun Protection Factor - is the measure of time it would take for skin to which sun shield, sun block or sunscreen has been applied to burn vs. skin to which no sun shield, sun block or sunscreen has been applied.
Spiraea Ulmaria Flower:botanical, also know as Meadowsweet, part of the rose family - extract from its flowers is know for its soothing, regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties.
sulfur:excellent for use in skin care to assist in controlling bacteria associated with acne like conditions. Has soothing and calming qualities, to deal with the redness and irritation often seen with acne like conditions.
sun block:a physical barrier using natural minerals, which when applied to the skin offers a barrier against ultraviolet rays (UVA or UVB or both) by reflecting the ultraviolet rays away fom the skin, preventing their entry into the skin. Most popular and effective sun block ingredients are the natural minerals Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. Blocks have the added benefit of being active immediately upon application (no combining with the skin as in sunscreens) and they keeping skin cooler. Excellent for use by people sensitive to or concerned about sunscreen chemicals
Sun Defense:the registered trademark of Nancy K Brown Aesthetics, Inc. in Canada and other jurisdictions. Is a category of products offering help against environmental assaults on the skin. Available in Sun Defense Moisturizers and Sun Defense Shields.
sunscreen:a chemical barrier which when applied to the skin forms a barrier with the skin against ultraviolet rays (UVA or UVB or both) by absorbing the ultraviolet rays, preventing their entry into the skin. These sun protectants must be applied a minimum of 20 minutes before sun exposure for the sun protectant chemicals to be activated by combining with the skin to form the UV absorption / filtration layer.

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